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高三英语常见的词汇、句型、语法汇总

2019-11-23 10:31:21 文章来源:江阴高三英语 作者:星火英语 浏览量:974

  对于英语来说,各种英语词组的积累是非常重要的,星火一对一英语辅导时老师为同学们整理了高三英语常见的词汇、句型、语法汇总,希望能够更好地为高三同学们提供英语辅导,各位同学可以依此来复习,以迎接期末考试和高考哦!


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       高三英语常见的词汇、句型、语法汇总


  一、高级词汇


  1.occur 替换 think of

  Suddenly I had an idea that someone had broken into my house. →

  An idea occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.

  It occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.

  2.devote替换spend

  He spends all his spare time in reading. →

  He devotes all his spare time to reading.

  3.seek替换want / look for

  They sought ( wanted ) to hide themselves behind the trees.

  4.average 替换ordinary

  I’m an average ( ordinary ) student.

  5.but替换very

  The film we saw last night was very interesting. →

  The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting.

  The film we saw last night was anything but boring.

  6.seat 替换sit

  On his way to school, he found an old lady seated (sitting) by the road, looking worried.

  7.suppose 替换should

  He is supposed to ( should ) have driven more slowly.

  8.appreciate 替换thank

  Thank you very much for you help. →

  We appreciate your help very much. / Your help is much appreciated.

  9.the case替换 true

  I don’t think it is the case ( true ).

  10.on替换as soon as

  As soon as he arrived, he began his research. →

  On his arrival, he began his research..

  11.due to替换because of

  He arrived late due to ( because of ) the storm.

  12.cover替换walk/read

  After covering (walking) 10 miles, we all felt tired.

  13.contribute to替换 be helpful/useful

  Plenty of memory work is undoubtedly helpful to English study. →

  Plenty of memory work will undoubtedly contribute to English study.

  14.round the corner 替换 coming soon/ nearby

  ① The summer vacation is round the corner ( coming). Do you have any plans?

  ② Li Ming studies in a school round the corner (nearby).

  15.come to light替换discover

  The family were so pleased when they discovered the lost jewels. →

  The family were so pleased when the lost jewels came to light.

  16.have a ball替换have a good time/ enjoy oneself

  After visiting the workshop, we went back to school. Every one of us had a ball ( had a good time ).

  17.come up with替换think of

  Jack is very clever. He often comes up with ( thinks of ) new ideas.

  18.set aside替换save

  Some students think that they should set aside some of their pocket money for books. (2004天津卷)

  19.be of + n. 替换adj.

  The products are of high quality (very good ) and are sold everywhere in China.

  20.refer to 替换talk about/of, mention

  The professor you referred to (talked about ) is very famous.

  21.can not but / can not help but替换have to do

  I could not but (had to) go home.

  22.more often than not替换usually

  More often than not (Usually), the meaning of many words can be easily guessed.

  23.lest替换so that /in order that

  I wrote down his telephone number so that I would not forget it. →

  I wrote down his telephone number lest I (should) forget it.

  24.be long for sth. / be long to do sth. 替换want to do sth./wish for

  I want to see you very much. →

  I am long to see you.

  25.be caught up in/be crazy about/be absorbed in/be addicted to替换be interested in

  He is caught up in ( very interested in ) collecting stamps.

  26.more than替换very

  ① I’m very glad to learn that you are coming in September. →

  I’m more than glad to learn that you are coming in September. ( NMET 2003 )

  ② If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.(2004全国卷)

  27.perfect (ly) 替换good/ very well

  He speaks perfect ( good ) English./ He speaks English perfectly ( very well ).

  28.do sb a/the favor 替换help

  Would you please do me the favor ( help me ) to turn down the radio?

  29.the other day替换a few days ago

  The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. ( NMET 1997 )

  30.in the course of替换during

  In the course of (During) the mountain-climbing, please help each other and pay special attention to your safety.

  31.the majority of替换most

  The majority of (Most of ) the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.

  32.consist of替换be made up of

  Our class consists of ( is made up of ) 50 students.

  33.be worn out替换 be tired / broken

  ① After five hours’ non-stop work, we were all worn out (tired).

  ② My shoes are worn out (broken). Please buy me a new pair.

  34.become of替换 happen

  What do think has become of ( happened to ) him ?

  35.attend to替换look after

  36.on condition that替换as long as

  37.nevertheless替换however

  38.express one’s satisfaction with替换be satisfied with

  39.spare no efforts to do替换try one’s best to do

  40.many a 替换many

  41.be rushed off one’s feet 替换be busy in doing

  42.a handful of替换a little / some

  43.meanwhile替换at the same time

  44.get to one’s feet替换stand up

  45.beneath替换under

  46.occasionally替换sometimes /once in while

  47.for instance替换for example

  48.seldom替换not often

  49.wealthy替换 rich

  50.amazing替换surprising

  51.as a matter of fact 替换in fact


  二、高级句型结构

  ◆ It句型

  ① It will be + some time + before…

  It won’t be long before humans visit the Mars.

  ② It is + adj./n.+ for sb to do sth.

  It is very important for us to learn computer well, because it has changed our life so much.

  He said since it was a new model in China, it was impossible to fix it without the right spare parts.(2008年湖北卷)

  ③ It is + 被强调部分 + that…

  1) It is what Yang Liwei has done that encourages us a lot.

  2) Those who like reading extensively say it is through reading that we get our knowledge.

  ◆ more …than any other 表示zui.高级

  Among the optional courses, spoken English and computer study are more popular than any one else.

  ◆ 名词从句

  ① It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. ( 2004 全国卷 Ⅲ )

  ② My hometown is no longer what it used to be.

  ◆(非限制性)定语从句

  ① The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. It is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.→

  The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School. (NMET 2003)

  ② It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life. (2002 北京卷)

  ◆ 分词结构

  ① I don’t know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. (NMET 2001)

  ② We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, playing games, and meeting people. (2004 全国卷Ⅱ)

  ③ Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.(2004 辽宁卷)

  ④ Born in American, Thomas Edison was a great scientist and inventor.(2008年湖南卷)

  ◆ with结构

  ① A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured.

  ② He was carrying a bedroll and a large bag on his shoulder, with a large suitcase in his left hand.

  ◆ 倒装句

  ① The library is to the east of the teaching building. →

  East of the teaching building is the library.

  ② Although we are tired, we are happy.→

  Tired as we are, we are happy.

  ③ Only in this way can he grow to be a useful man. (2002 上海卷)

  ④ May all your dreams come true! May our friendship last till the end of the universe.!(2007年湖南卷)

  ◆ 被动语态

  ① Opinions are divided on the question. (NMET 2002)

  ② All classes are taught by teachers with rich experience in teaching foreign students. (2004全国卷 Ⅳ)

  ③ New factories, houses and roads have been built.(2004 江苏卷)

  ◆ 巧妙的改写

  (1).Only 改成no one but

  Only Tom passed the exam last week. → No one but Tom passed the exam.

  (2).as soon as …改成No sooner…than…/Hardly…when…/Immediately…/The moment No sooner had we arrived at the cinema than the film started.

  (3).have sb/sth do/done

  The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken (her leg was broken.).

  (4).变换插入语的位置

  ① However, they suggest fees should be charged low. →

  They suggest, however, fees should be charged low. (NMET 2002)

  ② I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. →

  This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. (2004 全国卷Ⅰ)

  (5). 用同位语代替非限制性定语从句

  Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.→

  Meimei, a girl of thirteen, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days. (2002上海卷)

  Shakespeare, a son from a poor family, a man of little education, wrote plays and poems that are read all over the world.(2008年湖南卷)

  ◆ 其它

  (1)注重句子的开头

  ① 用with复合结构开头

  With the sun setting in the west, we had to wave goodbye to the workers.

  With his help, we've learned how to analyze and settle problems.(2006年湖南卷)

  With the functions of inserting, deleting, moving and copying, it enables us to edit test, browse web page and download what we want.(2009年江苏卷)

  ② 用非谓语动词形式开头

  ⅰ)In order to improve our English, our school held an English contest.

  ⅱ)Walking towards the cinema, he met a foreigner.

  (2)长短句交错使用(注意:应突出主题句;长句子并非越长越好)

  ◆◆ 相关过渡语

  1). 表示时间顺序: first, then, afterwards, meanwhile, later,first of all, finally, at last…

  2). 表示空间顺序: near, next to, far from, in front of, on the left, on one side…

  3). 表示比较、对照: like, unlike, such as, but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, otherwise…

  4). 表示因果关系: because, for, as a result, therefore, thus…

  5). 表示递进关系: besides, what’s more, what was worse, moreover, furthermore, in addition, on top of…

  6). 表示并列关系: and, as well as, also…

  7). 表示总结性: in general, in a word, in short, on the whole, to sum up, in brief, to conclude…


  三、过去完成时概念

  过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即所谓“过去的过去”。

  过去完成时的基本用法

  1、表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。

  例如:

  By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.

  到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。

  2、表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。

  例如:

  I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.

  当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。

  He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.

  他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

  3、叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。

  例如:

  Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.

  史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

  I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.

  我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

  4、在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。

  例如:

  I returned the book that I had borrowed.

  我已归还了我借的书。

  She found the key that she had lost.

  她丢失的钥匙找到了。

  5、过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。

  例如:

  He said that he had known her well.

  他说他很熟悉她。

  I thought I had sent the letter a week before.

  我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

  6、在包含有when, until等连词的复合句中,如果主句谓语动词和从句谓语动词所表示的过去动作不是同时发生的,那么先发生的动作通常用过去完成时表示。

  例如:

  When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.

  我醒来时雨已停了。

  She didn’t go to bed until she had finished he work.

  她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。

  注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为这时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。例如:

  After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English.

  马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。

  7、动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。

  例如:

  They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.

  他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

  We had hoped to be able to come and see you.

  我们本来希望能来看看你。

  8、过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。

  例如:

  Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.

  他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

  No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.

  他刚到就又走了。

  It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.

  这是他那一年第三次失业了。

  过去完成时与一般过去时的比较

  1. 当一个由before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的从句所表示的动作和主句的动作紧接着发生时,两个动作均可用一般过去时来表示。

  We had breakfast after we did morning exercises.

  做完早操后,我们吃早饭。

  The train started to move just before he reached the platform.

  他到月台时火车刚开走。

  They started ploughing as soon as they got to the fields.

  他们一到地里就开始耕地。

  2. 按时间顺序叙述两个或两个以上接连发生的动作时,用一般过去时。

  He entered the room, turned on the light and sat down at the table.

  他走进屋子,打开灯,坐在桌子旁。

  3. 在表示某人过去未曾完成的“心愿”、“打算”、“计划”、“想法”、“许诺等时,hope, mean, plan, think, intend等谓语动词常用过去完成时。

  I had hoped to be back last night, but I didn’t catch the train.

  我本来希望昨晚回来的,但没搭上火车。

  We had thought to return early but they wouldn’t let us go.

  我们本想早回来的,但他们不让我们走。

  4.在表示过去的句子中出现常与完成时态连用的词,如:already,yet,since,for,ever,never及次数名词等时,常用过去完成时来表示。

  When we got there the basketball match had already started.

  我们到那里时,篮球赛已经开始了。

  The old man said that he wanted to go where he had never been.

  老人说他想到他从未去过的地方去。

  5.如果句中出现了表示具体的过去时间的状语,句子的内容为过去的实际情况或句子的内容为历史事实时,句中的动词时态常用一般过去时。

  如:

  The teacher said that it was Columbus who first discovered the American

  continent.

  老师说是哥伦布zui.早发现了美洲大陆。

  6.表述说话人始料未及的事情时,句子的谓语动词常用一般过去时。由于受汉语表述习惯的影响,常会用错时态。

  Jack, you are also here! I didn’t see you.

  杰克,你也在这啊!我没有看见你。


  四、阅读理解解题指导

  一、解题方法

  1.先看选项有意识有目的地在细节处和关键处圈画

  2.锁定zui.醒目的字眼(time age number place…)

  3.搜寻信息词,如:

  (1)5W:Who what when where why(how)

  (2)时间先后: First then after that next finally

  (3)因果: Because /thus /lead to/ is caused by /as a result of /Likeness/alike /common just as/ either…or

  (4)比较 :Similarly, differently, likeness, unlike,

  But/while/however/instead/on the contrary

  二、解题步骤:

  1.略读—快速浏览抓住文章中心大意以及文章的结构(借助所给图表结构)。

  2. 细读—带着问题,找到文章对应点,确认题型,分析整理归纳信息并且准确表达信息。

  3.复读 —复读文章,反复揣摩所填之词是否符合文章内容,其拼写是否正确。

  解题时要注意什么?

  ①.字数的限制

  1.审文章提示

  ②.是否可以用原文中的单词。

  ①.整个文章结构(大小标题)

  2.审结构表达短语类对应

  ②.内容表达

  句子类

  ①.字母大小写 ②.名词的数和格

  3.审语法运用 ③.动词的形式

  ④.形容词副词的比较级zui.高级,⑤. 连词,介词,⑥.时态语态,主谓一致,第三人称等

  必须熟背的常用归纳概括词汇:

  表原因:reasons(for),causes (of)

  表概括、总结:summary ,conclusion

  表目的:purpose,aim,goal

  表特点:feature,characteristic,character

  表种类:kind,type,category,style, forms

  表评论、评价:comment,remark,assessment

  表方式、方法:means,way,method,solution,approach

  表问题:problem,question,issue

  表建议:advice,suggestion,tip

  表要求、需求:demand,need,requirement,qualification

  表态度、观点:attitude,idea,opinion

  表情绪、感觉:feeling,emotion,motivation

  表用途、功能:use,usage,function

  表步骤:step,producedure,process

  表描述:

  description,appearance,look,color,size,length,width,distance,height,shape,names,age,sex,time,cost,event

  表关系:relation,relationship

  表来源、历史:history,source,orign

  表异同:difference,similarity

  表影响、结果:effect,influence,result,consequence

  表反应:response,reaction

  表措施、行动:measure,action,activity,behavior

  表定义:definition

  表利弊:benefit,advantage,disadvantage,convenience

  表质量、数量:quality,amount,quantity,number

  在英语学习中,我们不仅仅要记住一些词组,还要善于把词组熟练运用起来,星火寒假辅导班的英语老师时老师提醒同学们不仅要记住单词,与之相关的词组和语法也要学会运用哦。


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